A cover letter and screening tool were given to all patients during check-in at a rehabilitation facility over a 3-month period. Findings in this study indicated that the instrument was reliable and valid, and could be used for future study. At the end of the first survey, participants were asked to enter their email address in order to receive the link to the second survey one week later. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tiffany S Wong http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2630-2272, Harry Prapavessis http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0636-7316. 2015;143:51–7. Goal intention may have led to stronger associations with implementation intention if it assessed goal intentions to sit less, but our study was merely understanding individuals’ current sedentary cognitions, not aiming to decrease individuals’ sitting time. Thus, protective behaviors (avoiding contact with snail-conditioned water or engaging in protective measures when contact is unavoidable or required) are critical for controlling the schistosomiasis transmission. the Adolescents Health and Behavior Survey, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. There are plausible explanations for why implementation intention performed so poorly in predicting sedentary behavior. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: a revised theory of protection motivation. A three years health education program in Anhui, one of the heavy epidemic area in China, indicates that the awareness rate of schistosomasis related knowledge, attitudes towards this disease prevention and the compliance with examination and treatment of schistosomiasis among the workers were increased from 11.2, 9.1, 38.8 % and 31.7 % to 93.8, 91.9, 93.2 and 84.3 % through the intervention, respectively [13]. The mean score of each item was ranging from 1.7 to 4.4. This definition is supported by the literature including systematic reviews (Hamburg et al., 2007; Proper, Singh, Van Mechelen, & Chinapaw, 2011; Saunders, Larouche, Colley, & Tremblay, 2012; Thyfault & Krogh-Madsen, 2011), as well as findings from a focus group that was conducted prior to the study to determine the relevancy of the threat to the sample age group. Due to the prospective design, 30% of the sample that completed the first survey failed to complete the second survey. In this study, we tested the protection motivation theory (PMT) in predicting screening intentions. Lancet Infect Dis. Extensions in terms of anticipated regret and constructs drawn from the protection motivation theory are … Figure 1. The reading level for this definition (grade 6.6) was suitable for the general population based on guidelines outlined by DeVellis (2012) and the Flesch grade level readability formula (http://readibility-score.com, 2015). Eigenvalues more than 1 were utilized for choosing the number of factors, and factor loadings of 0.4 or above were considered acceptable [47]. This is further supported by evidence from Milne et al. The leisure-specific model computed an average daily score from the seven leisure-specific, volitional items, whereas the general model computed an average daily score from all 12 items. Thus, it is subordinate to goal intentions and follows the structure, “When situation x arises, I will perform response y.” The addition of implementation intention has proved to be beneficial by improving the initiation and performance of health behaviors (Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002). Since then research has concentrated in two main areas: where PMT has been used to develop persuasive communication and as a tool to predict health behaviour (Conner & Norman, 2005). The present study explored the utility of a modified PMT framework for understanding sedentarism. Each regression model was assessed by the R2, adjusted R2, R2 change, and the standardized beta (β) associated with each individual construct. Google Scholar. The PMT is frequently applied to breast cancer screening (10). Despite the significance of cervical cancer screening, motivating more women to participate remains a challenge in resource‐limited settings. Therefore, 596 participants who provided complete PMT data were analyzed for factor analysis. Considering the deleterious and extensive consequences of sedentarism, a PMT model grounded in fear appeals may be an important route in enhancing our current understanding of sedentarism. Third, the result of reliability test for sub-construct Severity was not as good as others, so the items in this sub-construct could be improved. Second, two townships were randomly selected from each of the four selected counties, yielding a total of eight townships. Responses from 306 respondents at a research organization were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. Yang GJ, Liu L, Zhu HR, et al. This is likely attributable to the short time interval between the assessment of intentions and behavior in the Prapavessis et al. 2014;8(12):e3296. Thus, a total of eight factors emerged: PV, PS, RE, scheduling SE tired, scheduling SE productive/focused, scheduling SE TV/videogames/computer, scheduling SE studying at home, scheduling SE studying in a Wi-Fi area/library. There are a number of strengths in the present study including a robust factor analysis design where both EFA and CFA were employed. This study aimed to: (1) examine the factor structure and composition of sedentary-derived protection motivation theory (PMT) constructs and (2) determine the utility of these constructs in predicting general and leisure sedentary goal intention (GI), implementation intention (II), and self-reported SB. Separating general and leisure sedentary behavior may not be necessary, but more predictive evidence is required before PMT can be used as a framework to guide intervention studies to more effectively reduce sedentary behavior. The proportion of students in the three grades was approximately the same with 31, 37 and 32 % respectively. Future studies should objectively measure sedentary behavior (e.g. The frequency of each intensity level was multiplied by the respective metabolic equivalents (METs) for the activities (9 for strenuous, 5 for moderate, 3 for mild) to obtain three activity scores (Jacobs, Ainsworth, Hartman, & Leon, 1993). Ethical guidelines were followed throughout the study. protection motivation), and goal intention leads to the behavior. Conceptual model of the modified protection motivation theory. Rogers, R. W. (1983). First, research has shown that undergraduate students report high levels of sedentariness, averaging more than 12 hours of sedentary behavior per day (Prapavessis et al., 2015). Wang S, Carlton EJ, Chen L, et al. Participants represented a convenience sample of university students (n = 787). Bartlett's Test of Sphercity (Barlett, 1954) reached statistical significance (p < .00) for both models, supporting the factorability of the correlation matrix. Besides revising the instrument, further studies can focus on exploring the mechanism of PMT on protective behavior against schistosomasis, such as how the sub-constructs influence the protective behavior together with other social and individual factors, and how the influence varies in time, or the intervention trial based on the PMT. Psychosocial predictors for cancer prevention behaviors in workplace using protection motivation theory. 2012;87(6):972–8. The students were asked to complete the questionnaires independently. It appears that increases in the endorsement of sitting less to reduce the risk of metabolic deterioration is associated with concomitant decreases in intention to engage in sitting. none, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h … etc.) This study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument developed based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict protective behavior intention against schistosomiasis among adolescents in China. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to justify the effects of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on SWMB engagement. Lancet. To investigate this contention, cognitions specified by Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) were measured with respect to intentions to use a condom and intentions to use dental floss. Cite this article. Results in Table 4 indicated that the Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.76 for the PMT instrument. Health Promot Perspect. He MZ, Wang AP, Xie YQ, et al. After completing Article  Frameworks of the Protection Motivation Theory and its seven sub-constructs. Zhu J, Zhao A, Wang LW, et al. 2016;21(1):38–51. The role of health education and health promotion in the control of schistosomiasis: experiences from a 12-year intervention study in the Poyang Lake area. 2013;127(3):226–35. Zhou LY, Deng Y, Steinmann P, et al. CAS  Unlike other social-cognitive theories, PMT can identify the role of threat and coping perceptions in one's intentions to decrease sedentary behavior and in turn, actual sedentary time. (1993) have shown the LSI to exhibit acceptable test-retest reliability and concurrent validity (correlates with objective measures such as CALTRAC accelerometer and VO2 max). 2013;25(2):215–6. In addition, Severity (0.05, 0.05), Vulnerability (0.20, 0.21), Response Efficacy (0.06, 0.07) and Self-Efficacy (0.40, 0.42) were positively related to intention, whereas Intrinsic Reward (−0.12, −0.15), Extrinsic Reward (−0.12, −0.14) and Response Cost (−0.12, −0.14) were negatively associated with protective behavior intention. Based on model assignment, they completed either the general or leisure SB questionnaire one week later. More objective measurements of protective behaviors such as videotaping or GIS positioning technology could be applied in the further study [21]. SE – studying in library and Wi-Fi area, Prod/Foc → Goal Intention → Imp Intention, TV/VG/Comp → Goal Intention → Imp Intention, Study Library → Goal Intention → Imp Intention, Study Home → Goal Intention → Imp Intention. University students have varying durations of class time per day and as well as possible extracurricular commitments, likely weakening the association between implementation intention and behavior. ***p < .001; SE, self-efficacy; VG, video games. First, the contents of health education could be upgraded. Upon completion of the modified PMT questionnaire (PS, PV, RE, SE), participants were randomized to two models (general, leisure) through an internal computer-generated randomization scheme (via Survey Monkey) when completing the goal intention and implementation intention items. The protection motivation theory deals with how people cope with and make decisions in times of harmful or stressful events in life. The results from Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the 18-item instrument was validated for applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in research on behavioral intention relating to schistosomiasis. Protection motivation theory and per capita income explained 51% of motivation variance and 25% of the variance of skin cancer preventive behaviors. In conclusion, the psychometrical measurement suggests that the instrument was a valid and reliable tool for predicting Chinese adolescents’ intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis, indicating Protection Motivation Theory was promising for schistosomiasis control and prevention. The same modifications Prapavessis et al. 2014;383(9936):2253–64. Global Health Research & Policy. Article  Ethical approval was granted by the Research Ethics Board at the host university prior to commencing the study. Sedentary behavior has permeated almost all aspects of North American daily living for the past 30 years (Katzmarzyk & Tremblay, 2007). 2014;11(4):4528–43. Consequently, a total of four counties was sampled. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 26-item with seven factors questionnaire (perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation (or intention)) that jointly accounted for 72.76% of the observed variance. leisure or recreational) and less-volitional (i.e. Item response was assessed using mean and standard deviation. RE was assessed by four 7-point items (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). Hypothesis 2 was partially supported as the PMT constructs of PV and RE but not goal intention made significant and unique contributions to the prediction of implementation intentions in both general and leisure models (see Table 3). Each subcategory was measured by three items, totaling to nine psychological items and six situational items. The only questionable sub-construct is Severity, the results for this sub-construct is relatively poor, but considering the small number of items in this sub-construct (n = 2), it is still close to the acceptable level (alpha = 0.56). It’s estimated that there are approximately 200,000 people infected with schistosomiasis per year, and the health cost of schistosomiasis is equivalent to HIV/AIDS, much higher than malaria and tuberculosis [3, 4]. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. 2014;16(3):197–203. Prior to performing EFA, the data were inspected for factorability (suitability for factor analysis) based on correlations (r > .30; Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013), Bartlett's test of sphericity (p < .05; Bartlett, 1954), and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO; >.50; Kaiser, 1970, 1974). Prog Nutr. Kurhan/dollar photo club Wu CST, Wong HT, Chou LY, et al. Therefore, this instrument may be effective for both etiological and applied studies of schistosomasis control and prevention. Treatment Adherence: A Comparison of Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in an oral examination held on November 28, 2011. Among the remaining 2522 participants, 284 (10.20 %) were excluded due to missing data on key variables (age, gender, perceptions of harm from schistosomiasis), yielding a final sample of 2238 (80.0 %). 2012;24(6):621–6. The aim of this study is to explain individuals’ engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). In this model, it is proposed that protection motivation (i.e., intention to practice a specific behavior) results from two processes of coping and threat appraisal Completion of both surveys signified the end of their involvement in the study. Sample items for psychological events were: “when you are productive doing your work, how confident are you in scheduling a break from sitting every two hours for a duration of … ” (productivity), “when you are very focused (i.e. The first attribute assesses perceived efficacy, including two sub-constructs (i.e. Our sample of university students (Mage = 19.44 years, SD = 1.81) was considerably younger than Prapavessis et al. This can lead to diseases of the heart. protection motivation theory, the present study is aimed to conduct a path analysis of skin cancer preventive behaviors in rural women to explore these factors. Questionnaire surveys were administered to 193 public and private office workers residing in the city of Bangkok. Second, the transition to university is a life event associated with a steep decrease in physical activity among young men and women (Kwan, Cairney, Faulkner, & Pullenayegum, 2012). Google Scholar. linear regression, hierarchical linear regression). intentional goals for sitting time, but not for sitting less) was used due to the phenomenon of mere measurement effect (Morwitz, Johnson, & Schmittlein, 1993). The response efficacy construct was the strongest predictor of the motivation of protection (ß = − 0.44, p < 0/001). There was no support for mediation (Hypothesis 4) in the present study. Furthermore, the lack of rigid adherence to plans (i.e. Psychometric properties of a protection motivation theory questionnaire used for cancer early detection. Overall these implementation intention findings are encouraging because this construct is the closest proxy to sedentary behavior and has the most tangible application for future interventions (i.e. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Adolescents’ protection motivation and smoking behaviour. First, two counties were randomly selected from the epidemic-control area of Hubei province, and with the same sampling method, another two counties were selected from spread-control area. Sedentary-derived PMT (perceived severity, PS; perceived vulnerability, PV; response efficacy, RE; self-efficacy, SE), GI, and II constructs, and a modified SB questionnaire were completed by undergraduate students (n = 596). Xu Y, Chen X. More work needs to be done to determine its applicability to other populations such as children, adults, and older adults. PubMed Central  Intentional goals for sitting time were assessed using three items adapted from Graham, Prapavessis, and Cameron (2006), which exhibited adequate reliability (α = 0.81). California Privacy Statement, Further studies are needed to develop more effective intervention programs for schistosomiasis prevention. Zou L, Ruan SG. Adolescents are in a stage of imbalance between cognition and physical development, and numerous studies have reported higher prevalence of risk behaviors among adolescents. In addition, nearly half of the acute schistosomiasis infections are adolescents in China [9]. Int J Env Res Pub He. PMT assumes that an ... questionnaire items. The Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a social cognitive model may be an alternative to the KAP theory. employed a 49-item questionnaire to measure protection motivation theory constructs regarding self-medication and principal components analysis was done to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Population-based accelerometer studies indicate that only 15% of Canadian adults are meeting physical activity guidelines (at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity [MVPA] per week), and that 68% of males and 69% of females’ daily waking hours are spent sedentary (Colley et al., 2011). Reliability was assessed using the Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale, as well as the sub-constructs. Pediatrics. Design/methodology/approach. A protection motivation theory-based scale for tobacco research among Chinese youth. In this study, protection motivation theory (PMT) was used as a theoretical framework to recognize the factors influencing the Iranian women’s intention to first Pap test practice. questionnaire that addressed previous testing behaviour and measured constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Protection Motivation Theory, which propose a total of eight possible predictors of intention. On the first survey link, participants were directed to the letter of information, asked to provide informed consent before proceeding to the questionnaire package. Insulin is a hormone that lowers glucose levels (a type of sugar) in the blood. The MQ motivation model is based on twenty motivation dimensions that occur repeatedly in the literature on motivation. The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a useful and social cognitive model for motivating individuals to use protective behavior. Pearson correlation was used to examine the association between PMT sub-constructs and short-term and long-term intention, and the significance of correlation coefficients was the criteria for predictive validity. Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women’s intention to first pap test practice. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. University students represent an ideal population for studying sedentary behavior and cognitions for several reasons. Downloadable! The MQ motivation model is based on twenty motivation dimensions that occur repeatedly in the literature on motivation. The … Despite the aforementioned strengths, the study is not without limitations. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the factor structure and composition of sedentary-derived PMT constructs and (2) determine whether general and leisure PMT models can predict sedentary goal intention, implementation intention, and behavior in university students. Ghahremani L, Faryabi R, Kaveh MH. As the first step of applying PMT [26, 38, 41], the main purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a PMT based schistosomiasis scale, and to investigate the association between components of PMT and protective behavior intention. Post hoc analysis using Fisher's Z (Garbin, n.d.) revealed no significant difference between the two models (goal intention, Z = .819, p = .413; implementation intention, Z = .867, p = .386; sedentary behavior Z = .294, p = .767). The Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a social cognitive model may be an alternative to the KAP theory. It is likely that an older age group may have a stronger threat perception towards metabolic deterioration compared to university students, which could strengthen the predictability of the model. Hassani L, Dehdari T, Hajizadeh E, et al. School of Health Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, Han Xiao, Minjin Peng, Hong Yan, Mengting Gao, Jingjing Li & Shiyue Li, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, Department of Infection Control, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China, Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, Hong Yan, Mengting Gao, Jingjing Li & Shiyue Li, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, School of Demography, College of Arts and Social Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia, You can also search for this author in one week after sedentary intentions), which extends the existing cross-sectional research. 1995;40(11):1497–511. The respondents of this study completed a scenario-based questionnaire regarding norovirus disease incidence in response to a simulated outbreak while at sea. Second, action initiation may have been too easy to begin with (i.e. Seventy-two classes in total were included. In the general model, scheduling SE productive/focused and scheduling SE studying in library/Wi-Fi area were significantly related to sedentary behavior. Despite the wide application of PMT to various health and safety-related behaviors, PMT has not been used to predict sedentary behavior. Evaluation of an educational intervention on villagers’ knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Sichuan province, China. All analysis were conducted with the software SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003296. This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on 761 HCWs in Hamadan, Iran, using multi-stage random sampling. More or better: Do the number and specificity of implementation intentions matter in increasing physical activity? The SPSS version 19.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used for the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity and KMO test. Knowledge, experience, and potential risks of dating violence among Japanese university students: a cross-sectional study. As proposed by the modified model (Figure 1), two mediation analyses, the Sobel test and bootstrapped sampling distribution (Preacher & Hayes, 2004) computed the indirect effect of the three relationships: (1) PMT constructs on implementation intention through goal intention, (2) PMT constructs on sedentary behavior through goal intention, and (3) goal intention on sedentary behavior through implementation intention. Exclusion criteria included suffering from a medical condition or physical limitation that prevented them from being physically active. The reliability of the items that deemed to be one factor was assessed by Cronbach's alpha in order to measure each scale's internal consistency. Data were collected using the Adolescents Health and Behavior Survey (AHBS). Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the behavior . Previous physical activity research has shown the intention-behavior relationship to be stronger when there is scale congruence between the measures (Courneya & McAuley, 1995; Maddison & Prapavessis, 2004). The MQ questionnaire was designed to throw light on what motivates and demotivates people at work. This ensured that the temporal sequence (PMT cognitions were assessed prior to sedentary behavior) of assessment was in line with the proposed model being tested, as recommended by Prapavessis et al. The behavior intention was assessed based on the participants’ response to the question “I am sure I will not play or work in the snail-conditioned water” and “I am sure I will take protective measure when contacting water which is likely to be contaminated by snails” in both 3-month and 12-month period. Factors were rotated with oblique rotation (Direct oblimin method) because constructs were assumed to be related. Furthermore, scale correspondence was not optimal between goal intention and implementation intention and implementation intention and behavior. To assess the construct validity, we used the Confirmatory Factor Analysis to analyze the data with a criteria of good model fit (GFI > 0.9, CFI > 0.9, RMSEA < 0.05, Chisq/df < 2). The construct validity analysis revealed that the one level 7 sub-constructs model fitted data well (GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, Chi-sq/df = 3.90, p < 0.001). Journal of Psychology 91, 93-114. Random sampling was not possible due to restrictions upon receiving contact information for all students enrolled in the university. One-way ANOVAs revealed a significant difference between complete and incomplete data for age, F(1, 721) = 6.74, p = .01, however, the mean age between the two groups were very similar (19.49 (SD = 1.79) complete; 18.84 (2.03) incomplete). standing or doing some light activity) every two hours in the face of common challenges to decrease sitting – a type of self-regulatory efficacy – was assessed. Items were restricted to load on their corresponding factor, latent factors were not allowed to correlate with other latent factors, and the errors of measurement associated with each observed variable were allowed to be correlated. This research was conducted between September and October 2013 in Hubei province, China. The KMO value was .88 (general) and .89 (leisure), exceeding the recommended value of .6 (Kaiser, 1970, 1974). Items that were significantly related to implementation intention were entered in a hierarchical linear regression model with goal intention entered in step 1, and the PMT constructs entered at step 2 (see Table 3). Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People’s Republic of China in 2012. The MQ questionnaire assesses twenty motivation dimensions covering three key areas of Self-Determination Theory-Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. (2015) found sedentary goal intention to explain greater variance in sedentary behavior (2–36%). Part of The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. 2016;1(1):1–9. 2007;30(2):125–35. Creating restrictions on exactly when to decrease sedentary behavior may actually make the execution more complicated and harder to remember because it happens so frequently. Software SAS version 9.3 protection motivation theory questionnaire SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC ) the screening tool were given to all during. 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